The overall length of the borderline of the Republic of Albania is 1094 km; out of which 657-km is land-border, 316-km sea-border, 48-km river-border and 73 km lake-border. Chromium, ferro-nickel, copper, coal, oil and gas are among the most important sub-soil minerals found in Albania. Climate Coastal areas: Central Mediterranean, mild and wet winter, hot and dry summer. Alpine areas: Central Continental, cold and wild winter, wet summer.
The Greek geographer, Ptholemeous, has witnessed the existence of Albanians and Albanian language in the second century AD. The name "Shqiperi" Albania replaced the "old" name "Arberi" or Arbani by the end of the XVI. The literary Albanian language has 36 letters and uses the Latin Alphabet, approved by the National Congress of Manastir in 1908.
The Albanian language is also used written & spoken in Kosova, Montenegro, Serbia and Macedonia, where ethnic Albanians live.
Traces of life from the period of middle and late Paleolithic 100 000 - 10 000 years ago are found in Xare, as well as in the Cave of Saint Marina in Saranda. The end of the first millennium marks the crystallization of the Albanian nation. Latter on, the Albanian political formations of the XI. Scanderbeg managed to give birth to a centralized Albanian state Arberia and his flag became the national flag of Albania.
But, unfortunately enough, in the same year, the Congress of Berlin decided the division of the Albanian territories to the benefit of the neighboring states, Montenegro, Serbia and Greece. On January 21, 1925, the Constitutional Assembly declared Albania a Parliamentary Republic and Ahmet Zog was elected President of Albania, but he had so much power in his hands that, in fact, the Republic functioned as a Presidential one. On November 29, 1944, Albania was liberated from the nazi-fascist invaders.
On January 11, 1946, the Constitutional Assembly declared Albania a People's Republic, as one of the forms of the proletarian dictatorship, which lasted, more or less, half a century, until April 29, 1991, when the first pluralistic Parliament declared the Parliamentary Republic of Albania. Political System Parliamentary Republic Parliamentary Republic - One-room parliament with 140 representatives, who are elected, by general elections, once in four year.